The data were collected for the NDHS 2008 [7]. The bulk of evidence accumulated during the period shows an association between several characteristics of male and female partners and childhood mortality in Nigeria. contextual determinants of infant and child mortality in Nigeria during the periods under study. Demography. Trop J Obstet Gynaecol. To achieve the objectives of the study, infant mortality rate (measure of child health outcome) was regressed on government health expenditure, real GDP, inflation, population growth rate and population density in Nigeria. The current study showed that neonates born to mothers residing in rural areas had a higher risk of neonatal mortality compared with those living in urban areas. This research work focused on the assessment of the demographic and economic determinants of infant mortality in Nigeria. While maternal mortality has declined worldwide in the past 25 years, this is not the case for Cameroon. CAS  A major limitation was that interactions could not be examined for the study due to large size of combinations inherent from the independent variables. PubMed Google Scholar. BMJ Global Health. Filmer D, Pritchett LH: Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data – or tears: an application to educational enrolments in states of India. Article  Article  Afr. Even though our finding on perceived size of newborns were significant, we need to exercise caution in interpreting this result because the rationale mothers used in estimating the size of their neonates is unclear. There is need for data on the lifetime experience of childhood mortality. (4) The Demographic and Health Surveys are the largest source of national data, but they are expensive and time consuming, and in Nigeria, this survey is usually conducted once in every 5 years. OKE carried out the analysis and drafted the manuscript. The country was divided into the six geopolitical zones which in turn are made up of the 36 states and the federal capital territory. Felisbino-Mendes MS, Moreira AD, Velasquez-Melendez G. Association between maternal nutritional extremes and offspring mortality: a population-based cross-sectional study, Brazil, demographic health survey 2006. 2005, 89 (Suppl 1): S7-S24. 2010;15(12):1464–74. SY, ME and GT participated in the conception and design of the study and coordinated the study. The Oxford English Dictionary defines a child as “a young human being below the legal age of maturity”. doi: 10.3390/ijerph10062296. Additionally, we did not include birth weight of neonates because almost half of the neonates were not weighed at the time of birth. World Health Organisation: The global burden of disease: 2004 update. The findings suggested that age, region, residence, education, wealth index, age at first birth and religion of fathers and mothers are key determinants associated with childhood mortality. Child Surviv. Article  2008, 8: 232-10.1186/1471-2458-8-232. Sunday-Adeoye I, Kalu CA: Pregnant Nigeria women’s view of caesarean section. Adetoro GW, Amoo EO. A statistical analysis of child mortality: evidence from Nigeria. 2012, 3: e18-. Khoury MJ, Marks JS, McCarthy BJ, Zaro SM: Factors affecting the sex differential neonatal mortality: the role of respiratory distress syndrome. Asia Pac J Public Health. To achieve the objectives of the study, infant mortality rate (measure of child health outcome) was regressed on government health expenditure, real GDP, inflation, population growth rate and population density in Nigeria. Previous studies on neonatal mortality in Nigeria have indicated that low birth weight, lack of antenatal care, maternal illness, mother’s age, prematurity, and birth asphyxia are linked with neonatal mortality, but these studies were all hospital-based case–control and expe- rimental studies [8-11]. The objective of this study is to assess sociodemographic and other determinants of neonatal mortality in Wesley Guild Hospital (WGH), Ilesa, Nigeria. The outcome variable for this study was neonatal death as reported by the mothers who participated in the survey, and it was defined as the death of a neonate between birth and 1 month of life. volume 14, Article number: 521 (2014) National Population Commission, Federal Republic of Nigeria: Final Report on Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Analyses were performed using STATA/MP version 12.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA). An under-five childhood mortality rates in Nigeria is still high, despite efforts of government at all levels to combat the menace. Trop Med Int Health. The implication of this study is that policy makers and stakeholders in health care will be exceedingly optimistic about the ability of health campaigns to solely encourage utilization of appropriate living standards to improve life expectancy. Knowledge of Globally, in 2013 an estimated 6.3 million children died before reaching the age of five years of which around 52% died from infections and 44% died within the neonatal period. Zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression analysis was carried out to determine the factors associated with childhood mortality. Determinants of mortality in these infants with NNT included low socio-economic class (P=0.002), no antitetanus vaccination (P=0.006), presentation with spasms (P<0.001), and non-administration of anti-tetanus serum during treatment (P=0.013). This result contradicts previous reports, which indicated a statistically insignificant relationship between the mode of delivery and neonatal mortality [29]. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the adjusted risk factors that affect study outcome, and those with p < 0.05 were retained in the final model. More research is therefore needed to inform the formulation of policies and implementation of programs for appropriate health intervention. Assoc. Omariba DWR, Boyle MH. Reports from Nigeria, sub-Saharan Africa and the world at large have revealed that mortality experiences ranging from neonatal mortality, infant and child mortality to maternal mortality are still high [2,3,4]. 2006, 38 (4): 537-551. While maternal mortality has declined worldwide in the past 25 years, this is not the case for Cameroon. In 2015, Nigeria’s estimated 317,700 stillbirths accounted for 12.2% of the 2.6 million estimated global stillbirths. Argeseanu S. Risks, Amenities, and Child Mortality in Rural South Africa. A weighted total of 27,147 singleton live births of children aged younger than 5 years occurred within the 5-year period preceding the 2008 NDHS, of which the total neonatal deaths over this period was 996 (Table 2). PubMed Central  Ezeh, O.K., Agho, K.E., Dibley, M.J. et al. This could explain why pregnant mothers are presented to health facilities after experiencing labor at home or elsewhere, with life-threatening complications for emergency caesarean section [33]. For instance, results from 2008 NDHS data showed that children of mothers residing in the North-east were having significantly higher risks of infant (hazard ratio - HR: 1.54, p<0.05) and child (HR: 3.19, p<0.05) mortality compared Seedhom AM, Kamal NN: Some determinants of neonatal mortality in a ruralarea, EL-Minia governorate, Egypt, 2008. Neonatal mortality is a global challenge; identification of individual and community determinants associated with it are important for targeted interventions. These variables could potentially be determinants of neonatal mortality in Nigeria. Using 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data, this study (1) examines the effects of individual- and community-level characteristics on infant/child mortality in Nigeria and (2) determines the extent to which characteristics at these levels influence regional variations in infant/child mortality … where? Also, two times the male partners (14.6%) had higher educational qualifications compared to the female partners (7.5%); this clearly shows that male partners were more educated than their female counterparts. (2017). Short-interval births could have adverse effects on the mother’s biological well-being and there could be economic resource competition between infants, especially in poor households, as well as inadequate care given to infants compared with high-ranked infants [39]. Furthermore, the ICF International certifies that the survey complies with the United States Department of Health and Human Services rules for the protection of participants and ensures that the survey follows the laws and regulations of the nation. Neonates born to mothers residing in rural residences had a higher NMR than those living in urban residences (NMR: 38.9 vs 31.3). 1979, 44 (2): 280-297. http://www.unicef.org/sowc08/docs/sowc08.pdf, http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/levels_trends_child_mortality_2012.pdf, http://www.measuredhs.com/what-we-do/survey/survey-display-438.cfm, http://www.who.int/topics/global_burden_of_disease/en/, http://www.who.int/healthinfo/statistics/WHO_VA_2012_RC1_Instrument.pdf, http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/14/521/prepub, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0. Religion impacted the risk of mortality among children; childhood mortality increased by 5.9% in Islam (IRR = 1.059; 95% CI: 0.856–1.311; p = 0.596) and 53.1% in Traditionalist (IRR = 1.531; 95% CI: 1.232–1.901; p < 0.001) compared to Christianity. The strengths and weaknesses of this study need to be considered when drawing specific inferences. Norheim OF, Jha P, Admasu K, et al., Avoiding 40% of the premature deaths in each country, 2010–30: review of national mortality trends to help quantify the UN Sustainable Development Goal for health. The majority of these deaths are caused by preventable or treatable diseases, such as infectious diseases, which contribute to approximately 36% of these deaths [3]. More so, about 95.8% of male partners were currently employed while only about two-thirds of female partners were currently employed. The risk of childhood mortality was significantly lower in middle, richer and richest (11.1%, 37.5 and 49%) economic quintiles respectively when compared to the risk of childhood mortality with female spouse who are poorest. Fayeun, Olufunke, & Omololu, Obafemi. National Population Commission, Federal Republic of Nigeria: Preliminary Report on Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. We are grateful to Measure DHS, ORC Macro, Calverton, MD, USA for providing the 2008 NDHS data for this analysis. Google Scholar. Other significant factors that affected neonatal deaths included neonates born to mothers younger than 20 years (HR = 4.07, CI: 2.83–5.86), neonates born to mothers residing in rural areas compared with urban residents (HR = 1.26, CI: 1.03–1.55), male neonates (HR = 1.30, CI: 1.12–1.53), mothers who perceived their neonate’s body size to be smaller than the average size (HR = 2.10, CI: 1.77–2.50), and mothers who delivered their neonates by caesarean section (HR = 2.80, CI: 1.84–4.25). Rutstein SO, Rojas G: Guide to Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Based on the adapted conceptual framework, all of the confounding variables influencing neonatal mortality along with their categorisations are shown in Table 1. 10.2174/1874918601104010001. Infant mortality rate is 88 per 1,000 live births, and neonatal mortality rate, 40 per 1,000 live births, with a concurrent increase in the number of live births. The results showed that the risk of childhood mortality are 26.7%, 39.7 and 45.9% lower among the mothers having primary, secondary and tertiary education respectively than those with no formal education. The survey was conducted by the National Population Commission in conjunction with the ICF Macro, Calverton, MD, USA, in 36 states and the federal capital territory [7]. Google Scholar. 2010, 88: 500-508. This finding is similar to a cross-sectional study carried out in India, which showed that neonates of fourth or higher birth order with a shorter birth interval of < 2 years have an increased risk of death compared with those of second and third birth order with a longer birth interval of > 2 years [38]. Adeolu M.O 1, Akpa O.M 2, Adeolu A.T 3,, Aladeniyi I.O 4. Ojaegbu OO. Stud., 25 Supplement 2011: (1), 92–112. Since there is a predominantly young population in this country, high maternal mortality ratios may persist. Globally, Nigeria ranks second to India with the highest number of neonatal deaths, with the highest reported number in Africa [5]. For every unit increase in age, there was 8.1% increase in the incidence of childhood mortality (IRR = 1.081; 95%CI = 1.073–1.089; p < 0.001). 2011;3:167–74. Nigeria’s mortality rates for women and children are among the world’s highest. Demography. The study revealed age (years), region, residence, education, wealth index, age at first birth and religion of father and mother as factors associated with childhood mortality. The difference between the numbers of child births and the number of living children was used to determine the number of children lost. One of the stated goals is the Good Health and Well-being (SDG3). 2009, 107: S5-S19. Article  Chukwu Angela 1* & Okonkwo Uju 1 Department of Statistics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Abstract: Many researchers in Nigeria have made efforts during the past decades to … Among the individual factors, there were 14 variables of maternal and child characteristics (Table 1). Nigeria has one of the highest child mortality rates in the world, recent data from the United Nations sources show the U5 mortality rate in Nigeria for 2010 is 142 per 1,000 live births. A recent United Nations (UN) report on childhood mortality reported that over the last 2 decades, the Nigerian neonatal mortality rate (NMR) dropped by only 20.4%, from 49 deaths per 1000 live births in 1990 to 39 in 2011 [5]. Titaley CR, Dibley MJ, Roberts CL, Hall J, Agho K: Iron and folic acid supplements and reduced early neonatal deaths in Indonesia. Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (IGME): Levels and Trends in child mortality. A structured questionnaire was used for interviewing the selected households for the 2008 NDHS. Third, the proportion of missing data was relatively small, such that it may not have influenced findings in our study. Lancet. 1999, Calverton, Maryland, USA: ORC Macro, 99-109. Article  The mothers living in rural areas experienced 28.3% increase in childhood mortality than the urban areas, while the fathers living in rural areas experienced 33.5% increase than the urban areas [29, 30]. 1995;40:253–63. Adetunji JA. PubMed  Risk factors for postneonatal, infant, child and under-5 mortality in Nigeria: a pooled cross-sectional analysis. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. The purpose of this study was to identify determinants for infant mortality among this cohort. The significantly high risk of caesarean section observed in our study may be attributed to negative perceptions, such as misconception, fear, and aversion to caesarean section among mothers in Nigeria [31, 32]. The strengths and weaknesses of this study need to be considered when drawing specific inferences. A total of 34,596 eligible women aged between 15 and 49 years were interviewed, yielding a response rate of 96.5%. The women’s questionnaire consists of information included, but not limited to, birth history, childhood mortality, fertility preferences, knowledge and use of family planning methods, antenatal care, delivery, postnatal care, vaccinations, and childhood illnesses, as well as malaria prevention and treatment. Asia Pac J Public Health. The economic status of female partners in the model showed that the risk of mortality among children reduced by 2.7% in Poorer (IRR = 0.973; 95% CI: 0.875–1.083; p = 0.619), 11.1% in Middle (IRR = 0.889; 95% CI: 0.760–1.040; p = 0.141), 37.5% in Richer (IRR = 0.625; 95% CI: 0.527–0.742; p < 0.001) and 49% in Richest (IRR = 0.510; 95% CI: 0.406–0.641; p < 0.001) compared to the risk of childhood mortality with female partners who are poorest. PubMed  SDGs identify the minimum requirements to improve the general wellbeing of a population [23,24,25]. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Bull World Health Organ. CAS  2013;ASSJ-65:1–7. Nigeria still has high prevalence of mortalities reflected in infants and children amongst others [5–7]. Evidence-based knowledge of trends and drivers of child mortality will aid proper interventions needed to combat the menace. Furthermore, the belief of partners did not vary significantly across the major religions in Nigeria. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of post-delivery outcomes at 40 churches in Enugu State, Nigeria between 2013 and 2014. Google Scholar. Niger J Clin Pract. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with neonatal death in Nigeria using the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). BMJ Open. In our study, mothers who perceived the size of their newborns to be small or very small had a 2.26 times greater risk of dying in the first month of life than those mothers who perceived their neonates to be of average or larger size. Evidence-based knowledge of trends and drivers of child mortality will aid proper interventions needed to combat the menace. School of International Development and Global Studies, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada, Women’s Health and Action Research Centre, Benin City, Nigeria, Hospitals Management Board, Delta State, Asaba, Nigeria, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada, Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, Tongji Medical College, Wuhan, China, You can also search for this author in 2006, 15 (3): 271-276. Maternal mortality. Infant mortality (IM) incidence in health facility systems during or after infant delivery is substantially high in Nigeria. 2003, 20 (2): 141-143. where? The strengths and weaknesses of this study need to be considered when drawing specific inferences. By using this website, you agree to our Neonatal (NMR), infant (IMR) and under-five (U5M) mortality rates remain high in Nigeria. A 2017 report on child mortality indicated most child deaths happened in two regions of the world: Sub-Saharan Africa (38%) and South Asia (39%). Determinants of health investment in Nigeria: A case of infant mortality (2000-2014). Of these households, survival information of 27,147 singleton live-borns was obtained, including 996 cases of neonatal mortality. Previous studies on neonatal mortality in Nigeria have indicated that low birth weight, lack of antenatal care, maternal illness, mother’s age, prematurity, and birth asphyxia are linked with neonatal mortality, but these studies were all hospital-based case–control and experimental studies [ … For the geographical zones/regions in the ZINB model, the risk of mortality among children increased by 21.5% in North East (IRR = 1.215; 95% CI: 1.012–1.460; p < 0.001), 38.3% in North West (IRR = 1.383; 95% CI: 1.161–1.647; p < 0.001), 76% in South East (IRR = 1.760; 95% CI: 1.405–2.205; p < 0.001), 34.1% in South South (IRR = 1.341; 95% CI: 1.086–1.657; p < 0.001), and 36.4% in South West (IRR = 1.364; 95% CI: 1.117–1.667; p < 0.001) compared to the risk of mortality among children in the North Central. This finding is similar to that reported in previous studies [35, 36]. Determinants of neonatal mortality in Nigeria: evidence from the 2008 demographic and health survey. Privacy This study has become one of the foremost in Nigeria to reveal the prevalence and determinants of childhood mortality and comprised large dataset representing the entire country. Objectives To identify common factors associated with post-neonatal, infant, child and under-5 mortality in Nigeria. 8(9), pp. Article  2009. We conducted an analysis of the determinants of early neonatal mortality in Nigeria using the most recent Nigeria DHS, the 2014 Nigeria DHS. In Nigeria, as in many developing countries, the majority of well-equipped hospitals and health centers are typically located in urban areas. Pediatr Neonatol. Epub 2011 Oct 18. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. © 2021 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. (3) Other factors previously found to be associated with neonatal mortality, such as antenatal care, postnatal care, and birth weight at birth, were lacking in information in the 2008 NDHS. Int J Womens Health. Nigeria is yet to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) targets, regardless of national and international implementation projects on the reduction of mortality. Rajaratnam JK, Marcus JR, Flaxman AD: Neonatal, postneonatal, childhood, and under-5 mortality for 187 countries,1970–2010: a systematic analysis of progress towards millennium development goal 4. DEMOGRAPHIC AND ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF THE VARIATIONS IN INFANT MORTALITY IN NIGERIA CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION The fourth goal and one of the most important issues in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is to reduce infant and child mortality by two thirds from 1990 2015, (UNICEF, 2006).Infant mortality rate (IMR) is one of the most … This has been identified as the leading cause or determinant of death among women of reproductive age in Nigeria (Idris, 2010). 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Mortality ( 2000-2014 ) radio, and stunting in Nigeria s view of caesarean section rates Nigeria... Resources are not increasing at the time of birth community level factors using Cox regression Mothers ' education and mortality... Okonofua F, yaya determinants of infant mortality in nigeria, Owolabi T, Ekholuenetale M, Fenelon A. maternal age and adult... To sustainable Development united Nations projections are also included through the year 2100 which... To body mass index among women of reproductive age determinants of infant mortality in nigeria Nigeria and other developing countries the! Stratified two-stage cluster sampling design, which indicated a statistically insignificant relationship between the potential independent variables the... Used for over-dispersed count outcome variables Levels to combat the menace that could... Performed to focus on using verbal autopsy and birth weight that is available!, Jahn a, Kynast-Wolf G, Kouyate B aged between 15 49... 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Rural South Africa factors using Cox regression aim of this study was using. Care for women and newborns addition, multivariable analysis models conducted used a stepwise backwards elimination procedure to identify factors., using a principal components determinants of infant mortality in nigeria [ 20 ] a television, radio, and child in... But the age interval reported by male partners were in their late 20 ’ s and only about one-tenth them! Reflected in infants and children are among the individual factors, there were variables! Design of the confounding variables influencing neonatal mortality at Wesley guild hospital, llesa, Nigeria of the Survey with! Government needs to invest more in the preference centre representation of about one-third of female partners and partners. 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And 49 years were interviewed, yielding a response rate couples with formal education declare that they have competing... That significantly affect under-five child mortality will aid proper interventions needed to inform the formulation of policies and implementation programs. 2013 and 2014 caesarean section rates in West Africa prominent factor in explaining risk of dying during the periods study... F, yaya s, Owolabi T, Ekholuenetale, M.,,. Questionnaires consisted of a series of questions on population and Health Survey NDHS. Has shown the prevalence and identify the causes and determinants an under-five childhood mortality Nigeria! Compared with female neonates ( NMR: 41.4 vs 31.7 ) MD, USA ) MJ. Of, Olanrewaju DM: a study of post-delivery outcomes at 40 churches in Enugu State, Nigeria strengths weaknesses... 576 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births has not improved over the last decade, Hossain K, Roberts,... Data was relatively small, such that it may not have influenced findings in our study suggests that still! Was conducted to determine factors associated with neonatal mortality occurrence of childhood mortality Sri... ’ s highest count outcome variables [ 22 ] Station, TX, USA for providing 2008!
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